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A lead seal of Qinnasrīn ­ Tawfiq Ibrahim

          So now, speculating as to their function, these seals could be payments, ´atā`, for the diverse commanders of the
          clans, or sub groups, the secondary ramifications always present within the actual body of any tribal structure. Even
          though a tribe or tribal confederation  which may present an apparently monolithic ideological façade in front of any
          other opposing or competing tribal entity will nevertheless, inevitably, from within its own body be subject to internal
          positional tensions and competitiveness between the different groups and, of course, the prominent or aspiring
          individual personalities vying for power within that same tribal structure.

          If these seals were for compensatory sums, probably in actual coinage, for the elites within the tribal jund it would be
          logical that these sealed amounts would have to be accompanied by a parchment or papyri specifying the sum of its
          contents and the exact name of to whom they were directed. All denoting a complex administrative system which
          would indicate, if this assumption is at all correct, that many more of these seals should be appearing in the near
          future once the due attention of archaeologist and historians has been drawn upon this type of apparently mundane
          material evidence .


          Lastly of note is the fact that of the five jund mentioned for the whole of the Levant area we now have the exact same
          type seals for three of them: the jund of Palestine, that of Jordan and now the present one of Qinnasrīn. So to date
          we are only missing the possible ones from the jund of Hims and Damascus. Though, as an afterthought, perhaps
          Damascus being the capital of the extensive Arab empire, one extending at one point from Sind to Southern Gaul, it
          would logically garrison a much larger, selected and privileged jund. One that probably functioned, in close
          conjunction with the surrounding junds, as the empires strategic military reserve and could have administratively
          been managed differently and perhaps be more privileged than the other four junds of the Greater Syria/al­Sham
          area.

          It is precisely from these five important jund areas, with the addition of that of Misr, (Egypt) that Hishám b. ´Abd al­
          Málik (105­125/724­743) would levy and urgently dispatch a large army in a failed and disastrous attempt to crush
          the 123H Berber rebellion of North Africa.The army sent was probably the largest ever assembled by the Umayyads.
          Its thorough defeat in Maghreb al­Aqsa was an existential catastrophe that would so damage its military capacity as
          to probably mark the beginning of the end of that dynasty. A segment of that defeated army, after many tribulations,
          was finally allowed, under the command of Balj b. Bišr, to disembark on al­Andalus on the stipulation that it help
          defeat the Berber rebellion also raging there. This mainly Greater Syria jund lead by the said commander diligently
          and successfully did exactly that by crushing the Berber rebellion in al­Andalus. These “Syrians”, as they would
          generically be called in the Arabic chronicles, would not be destined to ever return to their respective districts in the
          Levant, but after much turbulence, would be resettled in al­Andalus in accordance to their Jund origin: that of
          Qinnasrīn in Jaen, that of al­Urdun in Malaga, that of Filistīn in the triangle of Sidonia, Algeciras and Jerez, that of
          Ḥims in Seville and Niebla, while that of Misr in Ocsonoba (Faro), Beja and Tudmir.































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