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A lead seal of Qinnasrīn ­ Tawfiq Ibrahim

              his seal has a phrase in three epigraphic lines with a single word in each line, it reads in Arabic from top to
         T bottom as follows:

         To facilitate the discussion, we will first deal with each word separately starting from the bottom up. For the top word,
         as we shall see, is the more contentious in meaning and the key to trying to understand the possible function of the

         The third word at the bottom is clearly the geographical jund name of Qinnasrīn,  . It must first be said from
         the start that exactly the same type of lead seal, in distribution, epigraphical style and content exist for two other jund
         name places, that of al­Urdun,   , and Filistīn (Palestine) ,   , both published in the Goussous Collection .

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